Under the first Agriculture Sector Program,1 the Government of Cambodia successfully introduced policy and institutional reform measures to promote market-based development of the agriculture sector, which was under a centrally planned regime until the early 1990s. To further promote agricultural growth within a market-oriented policy framework, the Government requested the Asian Development Bank (ADB) for technical assistance (TA) to formulate a detailed proposal for an agriculture sector development program. In response to the request, ADB fielded a project-specific Contact Mission in March 2001 and a TA Fact-Finding Mission in May 2001. The Missions met with the representatives of Government agencies, the private sector including nongovernment organizations (NGOs), and bilateral and multilateral funding agencies in Cambodia. The TA Fact-Finding Mission visited the prospective areas in the southern and southwestern regions of the country, and prepared an initial social assessment.This paper was prepared from the Missions' findings and subsequent understanding with the Government. The TA is included in ADB's country assistance plan for 2001.